Archive for the ‘Studying IC Design in Brazil’ Category

Monte Carlo Analysis with Cadence and the XFAB Design Kit

Wednesday, July 8th, 2015

Getting Monte Carlo analysis to work on Cadence can be a bit of a puzzle given how Cadence is a ball of various software tools stuck together with spit.  You have have seen the following intermodal nastygram:

ADEXL-5052 Monte Carlo run stopped because no statistical data generated for the test

Research Links

Charge Pump Articles – No Inductors Allowed

Wednesday, April 15th, 2015

XFAB Links


XFAB PhotoDiode Cross Sections png

XFAB has integrated photo diodes in the XH018 process.  However it was difficult to find the scaling factor for the light input pin on the photo diode schematic symbol.  The only place I have found it thus far is in the photo diode model:

The photodiode light input is a third terminal on the diode symbol. In order to do a simulation one must know how light intensity scales to light input terminal voltage. This information was discovered in the comments one of the photodiode library files.

Excerpt from file: dphoa.scs

* TERMINALS: anode=PSUB, cathode=DNWELL, lpower=lpower[1uV==1uW] 
* VARIABLES: area[m2], perimeter[m], wavelength[1==1um] 
* TNOM = 27 deg C; TEMP=27 deg C 


Paper Links



A 0.35 um CMOS Solar Energy Scavenger with Power Storage Management System



Cross couple voltage doubler.

Design of Very Low Voltage CMOS Rectifier Circuits  – Bulk connection is very important in voltage multipliers.  In a Dickson charge pump DTMOS connection is the one that works best.  That assumes you are using isolated transistors so you do not end up with elevated theshold voltages.

Dickson model above simulates the action of the main line of the voltage multiplier but does not cover the power required by the clock inverters that drive the 2 phases.  Thus it does not apply for over all efficiency calculations.


The current of the 5V section of the level shifter is too high for very low consumption circuits.  My simulations had it at 10uAmp @ 1MHz.


This charge recycling scheme does not work if the stray capacitance is negligible compared to the pump capacitance. My lack of understanding lead me to try using it with my test design simulations. When no difference in current consumption showed up I had to scatch my head.


Voltage Regulation for Energy Scavenging


Circuit Implementation Notes

  • Area Efficiency Improvment of CMOS Charge Pumps:  If p is the ratio of stray capacitance to desired capacitance (Cp  p Ca) and is determined by the type of capacitors used. For double poly capacitors, this value is usually between 10 and 20 percent. Thin oxide MOS capacitors provide 5-15% stray capacitance, with a higher capacitance per unit area than double poly capacitors. For poly-metal capacitors, p can be as much as 20-50%.

Low Voltage AC to DC Converter Articles

Wednesday, January 14th, 2015




CI Brasil – CT1 Porto Alegre Inscription Open

Sunday, April 27th, 2014

Calendário CT1

  • 17/04/14         Início da Fase 1 – Abertura das inscrições
  • 22/06/14         Fim da Fase 1 – Fechamento das inscrições. 
  • 26/06/14         Início da Fase 2 – Prova online
  • 04/07/14         Fim da Fase 2 – Divulgação dos selecionados
  • 04/07/14         Início da Fase 3 – Início do envio de documentos
  • 18/07/14         Fim da Fase 3 – Último dia para envio da documentação POR SEDEX (data de postagem).
  • 12/07/14         Divulgação de vagas remanescentes
  • 04/08/13         Matrícula presencial
  • 05/08/14         Cerimônia de Abertura e Orientation Day (manhã)………..Início do Programa de Formação (tarde).
  • 31/07/15         Fim do Programa de Formação

Student Document Legalization for Brazil

Sunday, November 24th, 2013

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Summary of Experimental Results

There is no need to use a visa service to get school documents legalized by the Brazilian consulates.  Merely attach a separate 5 US dollar Postal money order with your and their address filled in on the money order.  Send with a self addressed stamped envelope for return shipping.


Detailed Results:  ASU Diploma & Transcript sent to LA Brazil Consulate via MyBrasilVisa

  1. Shipped ASU: Diploma & Transcript 12-11-13 to MyBrazilVisa for legalization at the LA Brazilian consulate: I am using to work the legalization of my first 2 documents as it gives more flexibility on an first run of an unfamiliar process.
  2. MyBrazilVisa Return address form
  3. Tracking of Express Envelope to MyBrazilVisa
  4. Shipped ASU Diploma & ASU transcript – 1 page

Each page required a 5 USD postal money order to pay for the 5 dollar stamp from the Brazil consulate in Los Angelos.


Detailed Results: University of Cincinnati Diploma & Transcript + Birth Certificate sent to Washington DC Consulate DIRECTLY

I attempted to get find a visa service in Washington DC that would respond promptly and with information I found accurate given my immediately previous experience with Todd and the LA consulate. I never did manage to find one. Thus I dealt directly by sending my documents directly to the Brazil consulate in Washington DC. Included were:

  1.  U.C. Diploma – with 5 USD Postal money order paper clipped to the diploma
  2.  U.C. Transcript – 3 separate pages – 5 USD postal money order clipped to each page individually – thus total of 3 5 USD postal money orders
  3.  Birth Certificate – with 20 USD postal money order clipped to the document. It has a raised seal.

No notarizations were require for any of the documents because public documents already have a sort of notarization.   


  • Turn around time was blazing fast. Shipped out the document package on Thursday: 12.26.2013 and received the return shipment on Saturday: 12.28.2013. I mistakenly did not start tracking till Tuesday: 12.31.2013 evening.  See the summary of tracking both ways at the bottom of the page.  The paperwork arrived at the Brazilian Washington DC consulate at 12 noon on Friday and went back out again later that same afternoon.
  • All pages came back with the desired stamps. Each individual transcript page had it's own stamp. The transcript pages were not stapled together.



  • In order for legal documents to be accepted in Brazil they must be submitted to the Brazilian consulate that covers the geographical area where the document was issued.  In particular transcripts and diplomas must be "legalized"
  • Reference: LA consulate document legalization page.  The translation of a legalized document, whenever necessary, must be done in Brazil by a sworn translator.  
  • Reference: San Francisco Consulate: Document Legalization FAQs  04. Can I send the documents to be legalized right after they are issued?
    It depends. Most documents, such as contracts, must be first notarized by a Notary Public before being presented to the Consulate for legalization. Documents that bear the signatures of authorities such as: Secretary of State, Judge of Superior Court, School Official, Public Official of the Department of Health or Agriculture, Police Officer DO NOT NEED to be notarized before being presented for legalization……….I believe this applies to birth certificate and school documents.  Thus no notarization required.   
  • Reference: Chicago Consulate: Legalization of other documents    Official documents, such as:  Those issued by county offices; Those issued by the state (Secretary of State, Judge of the Superior Court, City Hall, etc.);  Certificates of birth, marriage and death, and divorce sentence.  Certified copies are accepted, provided that they are signed and bear an official rubber stamp or haut-relief stamp……..Note the specific reference to birth certificate.
  • Email Response 12-10-2013: Chicago Consulate: School documents don't have to be notarized. Just follow the instructions in our page about legalizing school documents.



  1. no notarization required on school documents
  2. no address required on diploma – inquired via email to confirm this point as their instructions specify school documents must have an address. I never assume anything with this arbitrary government crap.




Birth Certificate

From Legalization of documents – Documents in General

Fee = 20 USD 

a) issued by municipal agencies or County ("county").
b) State ("Secretary of State, Judge of the Superior Court, City Hall, etc.").
c) Certificates of Birth, Marriage, Divorce or Sentences of Death.

Accepted originals or certified copies, provided they are signed and stamped or having affixed the seal-dry the body.

Certificate of criminal records ("Police Record Checks" or "good conduct certificates Police" or "Non-criminal record") : issued within the last 90 days by the local police of the place of residence of the person concerned, on letterhead with signature and stamp of responsible or seal-dry the police agency authority.  
No notarization by Notary Public ("Notary Public") is required.


Top 20 Mistakes made when legalizing documents – If your request shows one of these, your document will not be legalized.  I winnowed out the points that did not apply to school documents or birth certificate.

  1. The money order was not issued by the U.S.P.S. or is not made out for the correct amount.
  2. The money order does not show your name and your address.
  3.  The document to be legalized is not the original document.
  4.  One or more documents were issued out this Consulate’s jurisdiction.
  5. School document does not show the school’s raised seal and/or signature of a school authority.
  6. School paper does not show school name and the school’s office full address.
  7. Seal or signature of Secretary of State or Court official is not original.
  8. Application by mail without prepaid postage and envelope for return.
  9. The provided envelope and postage for return are not from the U.S. Postal Service.
  10. Envelope for return does not carry sufficient postage.


Shipping to the Brazil: Washington DC Consulate

Tracking Number: EM995587067US



  • Scheduled Delivery Date: December 27, 2013, 12:00 pm
  • Signed for By: I NASCUENTO  //  WASHINGTON,  DC  20005 //  10:59 am


Product & Tracking Information

Postal Product: Priority Mail Express 1-Day


Date & Time
Status of Item

December 27, 2013 , 10:59 am



December 27, 2013 , 10:05 am

Arrival at Post Office


December 27, 2013 , 7:53 am

Processed through USPS Sort Facility


December 26, 2013

Depart USPS Sort Facility


December 26, 2013 , 7:06 pm

Processed at USPS Origin Sort Facility


December 26, 2013 , 5:34 pm

Dispatched to Sort Facility


December 26, 2013 , 3:40 pm





Return shipping of legalized documents to me

Tracking Number: EM995587040US



  • Signed for By: WAIVED  //  SAINT LOUIS,  MO  63104 //  11:17 am



Product & Tracking Information

Postal Product: EMS 1 day


Date & Time
Status of Item

December 28, 2013 , 11:17 am



December 28, 2013 , 10:43 am

Out for Delivery


December 28, 2013 , 10:33 am

Sorting Complete


December 28, 2013 , 9:05 am

Arrival at Post Office


December 28, 2013

Depart USPS Sort Facility


December 28, 2013 , 6:36 am

Processed through USPS Sort Facility


December 27, 2013

Depart USPS Sort Facility


December 27, 2013 , 8:10 pm

Processed through USPS Sort Facility

LINTHICUM HEIGHTS, MD 21090                 











Other Options for Studying IC Design in Brazil

Friday, November 22nd, 2013

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IC related entities in Brazil – Many appear to be supported by the government

Other Industry Entry Points in Brazil

University with IC programs – This is an alternative to the CT1, CT2 programs if the only way in is a competition with engineering talent with 80 vacancies per year in a country of 240 million people.

Registering a Curriculum Latte on

Thursday, November 14th, 2013

Like ObamaCare website this government or government associated website is full of bugs.  I tried registering using my CPF which is the Brazilian equivalent of Social Security number but when I did that it griped about my mothers name!  I had several errors that I fixed before this so I quickly exceeded 3 tries allowed and it told me to "come back in 4 hours and try again".  Lovely.  When I returned the only result I could get was "come back in 4 hours".  Even worse.  At least when I returned it brought up my information that I had already entered.  It remembered because at the start of process if you put in the same email / password it sort of quasi logged you in.

My next attempt included changing my email address and try to circumvent the sites overly zealous security measure that is so secure no one can use it.  When I did this I got the same "problem with mothers name" issue.  At this point I realized because of reading tales of other peoples woes on the net that the site may be trying to cross reference my mothers name with information entered at the time I registered for a CPF.  Thus I figured ok will just go back and say I do not have a CPF.  After I did this and submitted I got:

O currículo foi enviado para publicação.

Se o CV não for publicado em até 24h, favor entrar em contato com

Hopefully I can later add in my CPF if it is needed.  I was able to log in after this but when I tried adding my CPF it gave me the dreaded "nome da mae" error again.  It also had the menacing blocked for 4 hours thing too.  I was able to change other entries in spite of the menacing message.



UFSC – The RF IC program is headed by Fernando Rangel de Sousa – My Summary Page

Saturday, November 9th, 2013

PPGEEL Page with LCI outgoing links

Return to Mother Page: Studying IC Design in Brazil

Research Links


The Cadence software is used on the following courses:

  • Undergraduate courses



    • EEL7303 – Analog Circuits
    •  EEL7411 – RF Circuits
  • Graduate courses



    •  EEL6712 – Introduction to IC Design
    •  EEL6713 – Analog IC Design
    • EEL6750 – RF Electronic Circuits

2013/3 – DisciplinasHorários

2013/2 – DisciplinasHorários

2013/1 – Disciplinas, Horários

From: Horários das disciplinas

Classes 2014 Trimester 1 starting March 10

Fernando Rangel de Sousa – head of the RF IC program at UFSC

Fernando Rangel is said to use ADS much and Cadence much less.  This may defeat my objectives.

Possible References


Application Form


Calendar  Primeiro Trimestre

  • Data limite para inscrição:  30 de Novembro
  • Resultado da seleção: a partir de 23 de Dezembro

Selection Results



Acceptance Letter Tracking – Required about 5 days to arrive in St Louis From Florianopolis.



O horário apresentado no histórico do objeto não indica quando a situação ocorreu, mas sim quando os dados foram recebidos pelo sistema, exceto no caso do SEDEX 10 e do SEDEX Hoje, em que ele representa o horário real da entrega.




09/01/2014 11:28 ESTADOS UNIDOS /



09/01/2014 11:28 Entregue






08/01/2014 12:35 Liberado pela alfândega
07/01/2014 21:31 Encaminhado






07/01/2014 21:30 Recebido no destino
06/01/2014 11:01 Encaminhado






06/01/2014 05:51 Encaminhado






04/01/2014 13:37 Encaminhado





para: SAO PAULO / SP

04/01/2014 11:45 Encaminhado





para: SAO JOSE / SC

04/01/2014 11:20 Postado


CTI Renato Archer – Brazilian government funded university for IC design

Tuesday, September 10th, 2013

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Calendário CT2/CT3

The following cut and paste from the calendar should only be used as a guide.  It can change.  Appears the test date may be changed but that may be in error. USE THE GIGANTIC LINK ABOVE FOR CRITICAL PATH ITEMS.

Calendário CT2/CT3

12/11/13         Início do período de inscrições.
12/01/14         Fim do período de inscrições. [PRORROGADA ATÉ O DIA 27/01]
30 e 31/01/14         Prova online de seleção
07/02/14         Divulgação dos selecionados da 1ª Chamada. Os candidatos selecionados receberão um e-mail solicitando a confirmação de participação e o envio de documentação complementar escaneada.
06/03/14         Matricula Presencial, apresentação de documentos oficiais e orientações.
10/03/14          Início do Curso
28/02/15         Fim do Curso.



Summary: The Brazilian push into ICs seems to be to use the Cadence design classes in a 1 year program.

Research Links


CI Initiative – The CT1 and CT2 programs look to be little more than Cadence training programs augmented by an internship afterwards


  • CT1 – Rio Grand do Sul:  program runs approximately August to August
  • CT2 – Sao Paulo: program runs approximately March to March:  FAQ CT2
  • I called CT1:  Talked with:  Frederico Laydner  – He mentioned:  

    • Even the foreign students get the 2000R$ per month stipend.
    • The competition test has approximately 160 people competing for 80 slots.  Not too bad compared to what I thought!
    • A CT3 is being added in San Andre Sao Paulo.


Links: Notes on various processes necessary to enter Brazilian IC design programs


List of DH's  – Design HousesThere are 22 Design houses distributed throughout the country



Correspondence – Felipe Orlando

The program has 3 phases and work like this:

  • First phase: you learn about the tools from cadence and about the theory from the ICs. This phase take 5 months.
  • Second phase: you will apply what you have learn in a project that they will give you, You will have to do by yourself and this will take 6 months.
  • The last phase, you will work on a "design house", that is a company where you will do a internship for 1 year.

In all the phases, you will have a scholarship from the government. About if you can do the program, I can say a little. Now on the program there is 40 students, about half are from another country. I think that doesn´t have any problem with you apply to this program. But you will need to wait for the program start to receive the appliance, that will be on november, I think.  You can get better answers with our manager, Jose Luis Ramirez Bohorquez.
–Felipe Orlando–


Application to the Program


The "Design Houses" of Brazil


Recommended books from the CTI Renato Archer FAQ for the Qualifying test:

  • CMOS VLSI Design: A Circuits and Systems Perspective – Neil Weste, David Harris
  • Digital Integrated Circuits: A Design Perspective – Jan M. Rabaey, Anantha Chandrakasan, Borivoje Nikolic
  • Microeletrônica – Adel S. Sedra, Kenneth C. Smith
  • Computer Organization and Design: The Hardware/Software Interface – David A. Patterson, John L. Hennessy

Qualifying Exam