See the basic setup The math derived here.
Imagine you and a friend agree to go to separate locations and flip a coin and record on a clip board what you get. Imagine afterward you get together and compare notes and see that the entire list is identical ?
That is what essentially what happens when two entangled photons separate and they go through polarizers at the end of their paths.
Video: Bell's Inequality and Photon Entanglement Video
Interesting points of note in the video
- pop bottle bottom glasses on 70's guy!
- Eigenvalues of a quantum mechanical solution are what you can observe. You never observe solutions that are combinations of eigenvalues.
- StarTrek looking test apparatus mock up. Scotty would have felt at home fixing this bugger!
- Einstein did not like ghostly action at a distance. EPR
- Assume quantum theory is incomplete: Look for a hidden variable. Photon pairs are emitted with a shared equal hidden parameter.
- Theories using hidden variables have been created that preserve locality and realism
- Experiments that only test perfect correlations do not force us to choose between quantum explanation and hidden variable method
- John Bell was the first person to show how to bring the two theories into conflict so they could be tested
- Testing perfect correlations are tantamount to looking at one sock and seeing it is blue and concluding the sock on the other foot is blue
- Imperfect correlations: set the target polarizers at unequal angles.
- Alain Aspect and company tested Bell's Theorem
- Tunable lasers were required for this test setup
Notes regarding entanglement for purposes of understand the math / mechanics
- http://pagesperso-orange.fr/eric.chopin/epr/aspect.htm
- experimental setup
- How the experiment works
- Picture of the Calcium source
- The Calcium transition that is used to emit the correlated photons
- Picture of the Polarizers at one end of the experiment
Bell's Theorem: The Quantum Venn Diagram Paradox
The following video gives a good simple explanation
Alain Aspect Video Presentation
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